August Immanuel Bekker

Acrok video converter crack for mac free. Bekker numbering or Bekker pagination is the standard form of citation to the works of Aristotle. Mac os x 10.7 iso. It is based on the page numbers used in the Prussian Academy of Sciences edition of the complete works of Aristotle and takes its name from the editor of that edition, the classical philologistAugust Immanuel Bekker (1785-1871); because the Academy was located in Berlin, the system is occasionally referred to by the alternative name Berlin numbering or Berlin pagination.[1]

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Bekker numbers consist of up to three ordered coordinates, or pieces of information: a number, the letter a or b, and another number, which refer respectively to the page number of Bekker's edition of the Greek text of Aristotle's works, the page column (a standard page of Bekker's edition has exactly two columns), and the line number (total lines typically ranging from 20-40 on a given column or page in Bekker's edition). For example, the Bekker number denoting the beginning of Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics is 1094a1, which corresponds to page 1094 of Bekker's edition, first column (column a), line 1[2].

All modern editions or translations of Aristotle intended for scholarly readers use Bekker numbers, in addition to or instead of page numbers. Contemporary scholars writing on Aristotle use the Bekker number so that the author's citations can be checked by readers without having to use the same edition or translation that the author used.

May 31, 2017 Barnes Complete Works Of Aristotle Pdf Viewer Plato and the Mass Media. Book X of the Republic contains a scathing attack on poetry which is still, by turns, both incomprehensible and disturbing. May 11, 2017  Barnes Complete Works Of Aristotle Pdf Creator. In The Complete Works of Aristotle, vol. Aristotle, Metaphysics,inThe Complete Works of Aristotle, vol. Plato's three distinctions of incentives will be discussed later in this essay. Aristotle also was a great influence on economic thought. He is considered to have impacted a.

While Bekker numbers are the dominant method used to refer to the works of Aristotle, Catholic or Thomist scholars often use the medieval method of reference by book, chapter, and sentence, albeit generally in addition to Bekker numbers.

Stephanus pagination is the comparable system for referring to the works of Plato, and Diels-Kranz numbering is the comparable system for Pre-Socratic philosophy. Unlike Stephanus pagination, which is based upon a three-volume translation of Plato's works and which recycles low page numbers across the three volumes, introducing the possibility for ambiguity if the Platonic work or volume is not specified, Bekker page numbers cycle from 1 through the end of the Corpus Aristotelicum regardless of volume, without starting over for some other given volume. Bekker numbering therefore has the advantage that its notation is unambiguous as compact numerical information, although it relies upon the ordering of Aristotle's works as presented in Bekker's edition.

Aristotle's works by Bekker numbers[edit]

The following list is complete. The titles are given in accordance with the standard set by the Revised Oxford Translation.[3] Latin titles, still often used by scholars, are also given.

Authenticity disputed.
Generally agreed to be spurious.
WorkLatin name
16aOn InterpretationDe Interpretatione
24aPrior AnalyticsAnalytica Priora
71aPosterior AnalyticsAnalytica Posteriora
164aSophistical RefutationsDe Sophisticis Elenchis
Physics(natural philosophy)
268aOn the HeavensDe Caelo
314aOn Generation and CorruptionDe Generatione et Corruptione
391aOn the UniverseDe Mundo
402aOn the SoulDe Anima
Parva Naturalia('Little Physical Treatises')
436aSense and SensibiliaDe Sensu et Sensibilibus
449bOn MemoryDe Memoria et Reminiscentia
453bOn SleepDe Somno et Vigilia
458aOn DreamsDe Insomniis
462bOn Divination in SleepDe Divinatione per Somnum
464bOn Length and Shortness
of Life
De Longitudine et Brevitate Vitae
467bOn Youth, Old Age, Life
and Death, and Respiration
De Juventute et Senectute, De
Vita et Morte, De Respiratione
481aOn BreathDe Spiritu
486aHistory of AnimalsHistoria Animalium
639aParts of AnimalsDe Partibus Animalium
698aMovement of AnimalsDe Motu Animalium
704aProgression of AnimalsDe Incessu Animalium
715aGeneration of AnimalsDe Generatione Animalium
791aOn ColorsDe Coloribus
800aOn Things HeardDe audibilibus
815aOn PlantsDe Plantis
830aOn Marvellous Things HeardDe mirabilibus auscultationibus
968aOn Indivisible LinesDe Lineis Insecabilibus
973aThe Situations and Names
of Winds
Ventorum Situs
974aOn Melissus, Xenophanes,
and Gorgias
Ethics and politics
1094aNicomachean EthicsEthica Nicomachea
1181aGreat Ethics*Magna Moralia*
1214aEudemian EthicsEthica Eudemia
1249aOn Virtues and VicesDe Virtutibus et Vitiis Libellus
Rhetoric and poetics
1354aRhetoricArs Rhetorica
1420aRhetoric to AlexanderRhetorica ad Alexandrum
1447aPoeticsArs Poetica

Aristotelian works lacking Bekker numbers[edit]

Constitution of the Athenians[edit]

The Constitution of the Athenians (or Athenaiōn Politeia) was not included in Bekker's edition because it was first edited in 1891 from papyrus rolls acquired in 1890 by the British Museum. The standard reference to it is by section (and subsection) numbers.


Surviving fragments of the many lost works of Aristotle were included in the fifth volume of Bekker's edition, edited by Valentin Rose. These are not cited by Bekker numbers, however, but according to fragment numbers. Rose's first edition of the fragments of Aristotle was Aristoteles Pseudepigraphus (1863). As the title suggests, Rose considered these all to be spurious. The numeration of the fragments in a revised edition by Rose, published in the Teubner series, Aristotelis qui ferebantur librorum fragmenta, Leipzig, 1886, is still commonly used (indicated by R3), although there is a more current edition with a different numeration by Olof Gigon (published in 1987 as a new vol. 3 in Walter de Gruyter's reprint of the Bekker edition), and a new de Gruyter edition by Eckart Schütrumpf is in preparation.[4]

For a selection of the fragments in English translation, see W.D. Ross, Select Fragments (Oxford 1952), and Jonathan Barnes (ed.), The Complete Works of Aristotle: The Revised Oxford Translation, vol. 2, Princeton 1984, pp. 2384–2465.

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The works surviving only in fragments include the dialogues On Philosophy (or On the Good), Eudemus (or On the Soul), On Justice, and On Good Birth. The possibly spurious work, On Ideas survives in quotations by Alexander of Aphrodisias in his commentary on Aristotle's Metaphysics. For the dialogues, see also the editions of Richard Rudolf Walzer, Aristotelis Dialogorum fragmenta, in usum scholarum (Florence 1934), and Renato Laurenti, Aristotele: I frammenti dei dialoghi (2 vols.), Naples: Luigi Loffredo, 1987.

See also[edit]


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  1. ^Aristotelis Opera edidit Academia Regia Borussica, ex recognitione Immanuelis Bekkeri, 5 voll. Berlin, Georgium Reimerum, 1831-1870 (the last volume contains the Index Aristotelicus by Hermann Bonitz)
  2. ^Jonathan Barnes, The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle, Cambridge 1995 xxi
  3. ^The Complete Works of Aristotle, edited by Jonathan Barnes, 2 vols., Princeton University Press, 1984.
  4. ^'CU-Boulder Expert Wins $75,000 Award For Research On Aristotle,'Archived 2016-04-18 at the Wayback Machine University of Colorado Office of News Services, December 14, 2005.
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